What causes tuberculosis

Recognizing the causes and effects of tuberculosis

Millions of individuals are impacted by tuberculosis (TB), which continues to be a serious global health concern. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, mostly affects the lungs but can also affect other regions of the body. If left untreated, TB can cause serious sickness. Comprehending the underlying causes of tuberculosis is essential to halting its spread and enhancing therapeutic results.

Reasons behind tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis microdroplets are released into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks, which is how TB spreads through the atmosphere. Others in the vicinity may then breathe in these droplets, which could allow the bacteria to enter the respiratory system and perhaps cause an infection. Not every person who has the TB bacteria gets sick; frequently, the immune system is able to keep the bacteria under control, resulting in a state called latent TB infection. On the other hand, latent tuberculosis can develop into active tuberculosis disease if the immune system is weakened or damaged.

The chance of acquiring active tuberculosis from a latent infection is increased by a few conditions, such as HIV infection, substance abuse, smoking, diabetes, and malnourishment. These illnesses impair immunity, which makes the body’s job more difficult.

Worldwide Effects and Public Health Issues

Globally, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a significant public health concern, especially in low- and middle-income nations where access to healthcare may be restricted. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tuberculosis (TB) ranks among the top 10 causes of death worldwide, accounting for an estimated 10 million illnesses and 1.5 million deaths per year.

Early identification through screening programs, efficient antibiotic treatment, and vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in nations where TB is common are all part of the efforts to manage tuberculosis (TB). Drug-resistant TB strains, on the other hand, are a developing worry as they make treatment more difficult and jeopardize the security of world health.

Obstacles in the Control of Tuberculosis

A number of obstacles must be overcome in the battle against tuberculosis, including the emergence of drug-resistant strains and the stigma attached to the illness in society. When the bacteria adapt to withstand the standard antibiotics used to treat the infection, drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) develops. Longer and more complicated drug regimens are needed to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), and these can be expensive and challenging to obtain in places with limited resources.

Additionally impeding attempts to control the disease are social stigma and discrimination against TB patients, which deters people from getting a diagnosis and receiving treatment. In order to overcome stigma and promote understanding of tuberculosis transmission and treatment, education and awareness efforts are crucial.


In conclusion, the airborne spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the reason why tuberculosis continues to pose a threat to global health. A multifaceted strategy is needed for effective control measures, including early detection, access to high-quality healthcare, and initiatives to counteract societal stigma and drug resistance. One of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to abolish tuberculosis (TB) as a public health threat by 2030. To achieve this, continued investment in research, healthcare infrastructure, and international collaboration are essential.

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